The cell wall constituents of Leuconostoc citrovorum , L. mesenteroides a, and L. mesenteroides have been ascertained. All three strains. THE FUNCTION OF THE LEUCONOSTOC CITROVORUM. FACTOR IN CELL DIVISION AND THE INACTIVATION. OF AMINOPTERIN. By W. JACOBSON*. The generic name Chloropseudomonas Czurda and Maresch was not validly published because, when originally named and described, the genus did not.

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A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Leuconostoc. Leuconostocs are traditionally found in association with plant matter, fermenting vegetables, milk, dairy products, and wines and meats. Leuconostocs were first isolated in by Cienkowski. So, it may be used as biopreservative.

Concentrated Cultures of Leuconostoc citrovorum

Leuconostoc in general is important to fermentation of vegetables. Genes were also found that encoded pyruvate dissipating enzymes that are predicted to catalyze the production of many metabolites leading to various end products of fermentation. Additionally, certain species of Leuconostoc were found to contain plasmids, randing fromranging from 1. Leuconostoc is a coccus, often lenticular on agar and usually occurs in pairs or chains.


Leuconostoc is nonmotile, not spore forming bacteria. It is catalase-negative nonproteolytic organism without cytochromes. Leuconostoc is nonhemolytic, vancomycin resistant organism. It is heterofermentative uses a combination of the pentose phosphate and phosphoketolase pathways.

For many foods, such as fruit juice or milk products, Leuconostoc can contribute to off flavors due to diacetyl production. Leuconostocs, like other LAB, do not contain a tricarboxylic acid cycle or a cytochrome system and so cannot derive energy from oxidative phosphorylation. Instead, they obtain energy through substrate level phosphorylation, during the fermentation of sugars to lactic acid, ethanol or acetate, and C Citrate and malate are the two major organic acids metabolized by leuconostocs.

Metabolism of the former is important in fermented dairy products and that of the latter in wine. Leuconostocs able to metabolize oxygen to ,H, or water in the presence of an oxidizable substrate Timothy M.

Cogan and Kieran N. Leuconostoc can often be found in the wild and is a part of leuconosyoc natural microflora in almost all farming fields. It is most commonly found in many different processed foods in sugar processing liquors and fermented foods, including olives, cucumbers, sauerkraut, wine and cheeseeither as a starter culture or as a contaminant. Leuconostoc is a gram-positive chemoorganoheterotrophic bacteria. It is facultative anaerobe.


Leuconostoc requires rich, complex media nicotinic acid, thiamin, biotin, and pantothenic acid or one of its derivatives. Leuconostoc are found in mesophilic mixed-strain cultures but not in thermophilic citrovourm cultures.


Members of Leuconstoc spp. Leuconstoc mesenteroides is used primarily in saurkraut cjtrovorum, where its heterofermentative abilities are used in the first stage of four to convert glucose and fructose in cabbage to lactic acid, mannitol, acetic acid, ethanol, and carbon dioxide.

In fermented milk and meat products, diacetyl is responsible for butter flavor and the other fermentation products aid in the preservation and palatability of the food.

Also, Leuconstoc carnosum produces bacteriocins, leuconistoc these are used to inhibit Listeria monosytogenes in dairy and meat products. From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource. This student page has not been curated.

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