O setor de saneamento no Brasil tem demonstrado força e flexibilidade diante das dificuldades . Em janeiro de , o Presidente Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva assinou uma nova lei federal de água e saneamento (Lei /07 para o. 25 set. Four decades later, the enactment of Federal Law of 05/01/, which .. LEONELLI, G. C. V. A construção da lei federal de parcelamento do solo urbano . Institui a Política Nacional de Saneamento e cria. Passados nove anos da Lei do Saneamento, que define as diretrizes to the National Plan for Basic Sanitation (PlanSab) based on Law No 11,/ —.
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R2 — Urban population served by the household collection service inhabitants. It may be noted that the municipalities not included in the analysis due to a lack of data did not significantly affect the representativeness of the sample, given that the proportions were maintained.
Adapted from Giovannini and collaborators and Meijering, Kern and Tobi Even though FA is generally just for metric variables, Hair and collaborators consider it acceptable to include a small number of dichotomic variables among the metric variables analyzed by factors.
The strong points of the elaborated sanitation indicators are: International Journal of Sociology and Anthropologyv. The second form of analysis is the value of each of the factors. Secretaria do Meio Ambiente.
To aggregate the factor scores by geometric average, we had to normalize the factor scores to avoid negative values. The degree to which the results can be generalized was tested by dividing the sample randomly into two sub-samples and the results of the Varimax rotation loads, saneakento commonalities, and the factor structure proved to be stable, because there was no representative load of the variable in other factors.
However, in terms of the indicators W Efficiency and D Efficiency, more differences emerge among these municipalities. The FA summarizes the variables and generates factor scores for the municipalities. According to Kern apud Meijering, Kern and Tobi,one tool that has often been used to influence national and international political discussions is the European green city rankings. Plos Medicinev.
Saneamento Básico – Alchetron, The Free Social Encyclopedia
In terms of its contributions, this study offers: In this sense, it seeks to represent these municipalities by typology in a table format for the initial interpretation by placing each municipality within the group that it belongs to. To do this, it will be necessary to monitor the sanitation situation in municipalities to determine the dimensions of the effort and resources necessary.
Even though the indicators make decision making possible, this study has not sought to evaluate the impact of the program or sanitation policy.
There is also a sanitation ranking initiative that has been undertaken by the government of India.
The municipalities selected for the analysis were those which possessed a majority of the information related to the four components of basic sanitation, this being a sample that conveniently represents The results show three indicators that compose a municipal index and indicate the need for data to fully evaluate sanitation.
Of the 16 attributes, the data selection managed to include only eight of them, and some of them only partially. Overall it follows a standard structure: In terms of the sample size, according to Hair and collaboratorsthere need to be more observations than variables, with the minimum acceptable ratio being 5: The justification for this factor score is that it is computed based on the factor weights of all of the variables that make up a factor, avoiding a repetition of information.
Ecological Indicatorsv. After these tests, we used an octagonal rotation using the Varimax method to interpret the solution. The normalization was performed based on taking the lowest factor score and summing the other values.
For the municipality groupings, we have adopted the city typology as suggested by Meijering, Kern and Tobiavoiding the comparison of municipalities that have different characteristics. What these three rankings have in common is that they are based on indicators or indices that are applied to cities and that range in number from 12 to The concept of adequate sanitation was also defined through a thematic content analysis of the principles of the Sanitation Law, which have been grouped by these themes, forming the attributes of box 2.
Qualitative research provides more profound research about a given situation Cooper and Schindler,and this is why we have applied it in order to understand the components and attributes of sanitation. Based on these themes, the indicators were selected to understand the correlated structure formed by them.
Elaborated by the authors. The factor loads are the correlations of each variable with the factor, the lowest load being 0. The visualization of the classification results facilitates the interpretation of information in a clear and objective manner. In general, the MBSI values for municipalities are very close to each other. Only Profile I had a large reduction in representativeness.
In terms saeamento the WSW Coverage indicator, the value of sneamento is much larger than the second largest value. In terms of the aggregation of the factors, we opted for the geometric average due to facility of applying it and to reduce, at least partially, the problem of it being a compensatory technique.
Within the international context, there is a growing utilization of performance indicators in the sanitation sector to monitor the providing of, regulation of, and planning of these services Sperling and Sperling, According to Hair and collaboratorsthe factor score represents the degree to which each municipality has a an elevated score sanramento the group of items that have elevated weights for a given factor; that is, higher values with elevated weights for a factor result in a larger factor score.
By monitoring sanitation in the municipalities, public administration can plan specific actions, establish performance and quality metrics, and orient public policies. The sample consisted of observations the quantity of municipalities and 92 variables, equivalent to a ratio of 5: Introduction In Brazil sanexmento are roughly 3.
Lei n o Handbook on constructing composite indicators: