In economics an isocost line shows all combinations of inputs which cost the same total amount given total cost of inputs. A line joining tangency points of isoquants and isocosts (with input prices held constant) is called the expansion path. An isoquant is a contour line drawn through the set of points at which the same quantity of Isoquants are typically drawn along with isocost curves in capital- labor graphs, showing the technological tradeoff between capital and labor in the . Isoquants: An isoquant (equal quantity) is a curve that shows the combinations of certain inputs such as Labor (L) and Capital (K) that will produce a certain.

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The perfect substitute inputs do not experience decreasing marginal rates of return when they are substituted for each other in the production function. It is known as the actual rate of factor substitution, the rate at which the firm can substitute labour by capital in the market iocosts.

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Although the marginal product of an input decreases as you increase the quantity of the input while holding all other inputs constant, the marginal product is never negative in the empirically observed range since a rational firm would never increase an input to decrease output. He could do so using the combination represented by points A, B or C in Fig.

Isoquant is also called as equal product curve or production indifference curve or constant product curve.

Fundamental Methods of Mathematical Economics Third ed. Increasing returns to scale can be obtained only upto a point.


Specifically, the point of tangency between any isoquant and an isocost line gives the lowest-cost combination of inputs that can produce the level of output associated with that isoquant.

Siocosts producer must have sufficient capacity to buy necessary factor inputs to be able to reach its desired production level.

MKTS is, in fact, the ratio of the marginal products of the factors. Only if a dollar spent on isocists input is equally productive is the input bundle optimal. Put differently, a cost-minimizing input bundle must satisfy two conditions:. Table 1 illustrates, by using hypothetical numbers, seven alternative methods of producing six units of output. An isocost line shows the alternative quantities of two factors viz.

It is responsible isoquans administering following direct taxation acts passe Each such point shows the equilibrium factor combination for maximising output subject to cost constraint, i.

Isoquant – Wikipedia

A cost-minimizing input bundle is a point on the isoquant for the given y that is on the lowest possible isocost line. In this equationPL is the price of labour and Pk is the price of capital. On the incomes they have earned themselves. Retrieved from ” https: By clicking “Sign up” you indicate that you have read and agree to the privacy policy and terms of service.

Isocost – Wikipedia

Least cost input is a combination where the slope of isoquant is equal to the slope of isocost. The least cost factor combination can be determined by imposing the isoquant map on isocost line. In fact, every point on a given isocost line represents the same total cost. If a return is submitted after the due date, the following consequences will be applicable: The producer can attain P level of output by the factor combination represented by point E, which is on iso-cost line K 2 L 2.


The iso quant closer to the origin indicates a lower level of output. The person who fills in the return should also complete the entries in the acknowledgement fo Ridge lines joins points on the various isoquants where the isoquants have zero slope and thus zero MRTSlk.

Isoquant and Isocost Lines (With Diagram) | Economics

This is picturised by his budget line called isocost line. Suppose, the isouants wants to produce six units of output. To find the least cost combination of inputs to produce a given output, we need to construct such equal cost lines or isocost lines.

These lines are straight lines because factor prices are constant and they have a negative slope equal to the factor-price ratio, i. We may now speak a few words about the slopes of isoquant and an isocost line.

Conversely, if the distance is decreasing as output increases, the ans is experiencing increasing returns to scale; doubling both inputs results in placement on an isoquant with more than twice the output of the original isoquant. According to the Modern theory of factor pricing, price o If the price of labour falls the firm could buy more of labour and the line will shift away from the origin.