Eur J Paediatr Neurol. Sep;16(5) doi: / Epub Jan Beyond the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale. Burke RE, Fahn S, Marsden CD, Bressman SB, Moskowitz C, Friedman J. Validity and reliability of a rating scale for the primary torsion dystonias. Download Table | Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale from publication: Early Globus Pallidus Internus Stimulation in Pediatric Patients With.

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In generalised dystonia the trunk and at least two other sites are involved 3whereas hemidystonia affects the body and limbs dystobia one side.

Medline on PubMed was systematically searched for relevant papers published up to June using the following query: Tom Warner Research project conception and svale, organization, manuscript review. Craniocervical dystonia questionnaire CDQ The VPQ has been used to measure outcomes in interventions in several trials none of which were performed on patients with dystonia 78 — Jinnah Research project conception and execution, organization, manuscript review.

The CDQ is a brief and easy instrument. Systematic study of effects across multiple dimensions of disability is needed to determine what deep brain stimulation offers patients in terms of function, participation, care, comfort and quality of life.

It is available only in English, although the scale has been used extensively in Europe and Israel.

Induction of bradykinesia with pallidal deep brain stimulation in patients with cranial-cervical dystonia. Reliability and validity of three self-reported scales. The statements are graded in terms of severity of vocal performance.

FMDRS – Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale

Strengths and weaknesses The BSDI has been specifically designed to measure disability in blepharospasm due to dystonic movements that affect vision.


The CDQ has been used by multiple groups to measure the impact on quality dystoonia life of focal, segmental and even generalized dystonia 16 and also as a HRQoL measure to assess responsiveness to treatment-induced changes 60 Hurke pallidal stimulation in children and adolescents with primary generalized dystonia–report of six patients and literature-based analysis of predictive outcomes dyetonia. Efficacy and safety of botulinum type A toxin Dysport in cervical dystonia: Pallidal deep brain stimulation for primary dystonia in children.

Existing scales for oromandibular, arm and task-specific dystonia should be refined and fully assessed. Bart Post Works on projects financed by unrestricted research grants for Medtronic, Abbott and Apotheekzorg.

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This group followed the same procedure as the task forces that appraised other rating scales in movement disorders. The CDIP has been specifically developed for patients with cervical dystonia. This scale was designed for use in an evaluation study of voice therapy in cases of non-organic dysphonia Conclusion The task force recommends five specific dystonia scales and suggests to further validate in dystonia two recommended generic voice-disorder scales.

Use of acupuncture for the treatment of adductor dystonix dysphonia: Francesca Del Sorbo Research project execution, manuscript writing and review. In a study that included patients with laryngeal dystonia 77 the VPQ had high levels of internal consistency and test-retest reliability.

However, these scales are useful mainly in assessing the motor aspects of dystonia, and only two of them TWSTRS and FMDRS assess some of the specific motor phenomena of dystonia, such as action specificity, gestes antagonistes or temporal patterns. The VPQ was found to have good internal consistency in a study that included a large range of voice pathologies except for spasmodic dysphonia The aim is to demonstrate that in some cases of secondary dystonia, the sole use of impairment level measures, such as the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale, may be insufficient to fully evaluate outcome following deep brain stimulation.


Evaluating children with dystonia is difficult, because a wider spectrum of abnormalities may be commonly associated with dystonia.

GPi-DBS may induce a hypokinetic gait disorder with freezing of gait in patients with dystonia. Pappert EJ, Germanson T.

Dystonia rating scales: critique and recommendations

Therefore, rating scales in children are designed to evaluate secondary dystonias including a broad range of movement disorders different from dystonia i. Concern has been raised regarding poor sensitivity of the scale to mild disability or small changes Anette Schrag Research project conception and execution, organization, manuscript review.

Faun BSDI was scwle specifically for patients with blepharospasm. Rush University Medical Center. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study comparing the efficacy and safety of type a botulinum toxins botox and prosigne in the treatment of cervical dystonia. Deep brain stimulation outcomes are typically reported using impairment-focused measures, such as the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale, which provide little information about function and participation outcomes or changes in non-motor areas.